Steven Cheshire's British Butterflies
British Butterflies: Species: Species Account - The Pearl-bordered Fritillary:
Pearl-bordered Fritillary
Boloria euphrosyne (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pearl-bordered Fritillary egg.
ova
  Pearl-bordered Fritillary caterpillar.
larva
  Pearl-bordered Fritillary chrysalis
pupa
Pearl-bordered Fritillary
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Nomenclature
Insecta: Lepidoptera : Family Nymphalidae: Subfamily Heliconiinae : Genus Boloria: Species euphrosyne:
Description
The Pearl-bordered Fritillary is one of the earliest Fritillaries to be on the wing in the UK but is also one of the fastest declining species in the UK. They can be seen as early as April in woodland clearings or rough hillsides where Bracken occurs. They fly close to the ground stopping regularly to feed on spring flowers... a particular favourite being Bugle.

The Pearl-bordered Fritillary is very similar in appearance to the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary however, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary has two large silver 'pearls' and row of seven outer 'pearls' on the underside of the hind wing, and also red chevrons (rather than black as found on the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary) around the outer pearls.

The Pearl-bordered Fritillary is a Priority Species for conservation due to the continued loss of habitat and resulting drop in population.
Habitat
Woodland clearings in recently coppiced or clear-felled woodland dry habitats with varied areas of grass dense bracken, and in Scotland light scrub or deciduous wood-pasture.

Wherever it is found, there must be abundant larval food plant growing in short, sparse vegetation, where there is abundant leaf litter, especially dead Bracken.

The reduction in distribution of this species is primarily due to a decrease in coppicing in woodland, a loss of open areas in forests and inappropriate habitat management.
Distribution
The Pearl-bordered Fritillary was once very widespread in the UK but has declined rapidly over the last few decades due to habitat loss. It is now highly threatened in England and Wales and extinct in large parts of its former range. Its current rate of loss across the UK stands at up to 40% per decade in some locations.

It still occurs in the limestone hills of the Morecambe Bay region North Lancashire and South Cumbria. In Scotland the Highland and Grampian regions are the best areas for this species but it can also be found in Perthshire and Dumfries and Galloway. It is however declining in numbers... but less so than in England and Wales where significant losses have occured.
Where to see the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in the British Isles
The Pearl-bordered Fritillary was once very widespread in the UK but has declined rapidly over the last few decades due to habitat loss. It is now highly threatened in England and Wales and extinct in large parts of its former range. Its current rate of loss across the UK stands at up to 40% per decade in some locations.

It still occurs in the limestone hills of the Morecambe Bay region North Lancashire and South Cumbria. In Scotland the Highland and Grampian regions are the best areas for this species but it can also be found in Perthshire and Dumfries and Galloway. It is however declining in numbers... but less so than in England and Wales where significant losses have occurred.

Key sites for the Pearl-bordered Fritillary include:
Gloucestershire: Cirencester Park
Lancashire: Gait Barrows NNR, Eaves Wood, Warton Crag
Worcestershire: Wyre Valley, Wyre Forest
Devon: Castle Drogo, Haldon Forest
Other site: Eyarth Rocks (nr Ruthin) and Cwm Soden (West Wales)
Other notes
The following areas in the UK currenty have Biodiversity Action Plans which specifically targets threatend species such as the Pearl-bordered Fritillary as a response to the Rio Earth Summit in 1992.

Blaenau Gwent Pembrokeshire Rhondda Cynon Taff, Dartmoor, Gloucestershire, Caerphilly County Borough, Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Cornwall, Cumbria, Denbighshire, Devon, Dumfries and Galloway, Herefordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Argyll and Bute, Powys, Shropshire, Stirling Council and Teignbridge.
Lifecycle chart
larvaelarvaelarvaelarvaepupaadultovalarvaeadultlarvaelarvaepupaadultlarvaelarvaelarvaelarvae
 
Flight chart
JanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecember
The lifecycle and flight charts should be regarded as approximate guides to the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in Britain. Specific lifecycle states, adult emergence and peak flight times vary from year to year due to variations in weather conditions.
IUCN category status 2010 5   IUCN category status 2007 34
Endangered Endangered

5Fox, R., Warren, M., Brereton, T. M., Roy, D. B. & Robinson, A.
(2010) A new Red List of British Butterflies. Insect Conservation and Diversity.
Endangered Endangered

3Fox, R., Warren, M & Brereton, T.
(2007) New Red List of British Butterflies. Butterfly Conservation, Wareham.

4More information about IUCN categories.
Wingspan
38-47mm
UK status
Resident
Larval foodplants
Common Dog Violet (Viola riviniana) Heath Dog Violet (Viola canina) Marsh Violet (Viola palustris).
Butterflies of Britain ID Chart
Your personal guide to British Butterflies. This 8-panel laminated chart is designed for speedy butterfly identification in the field. Ideal for anyone interested in identifying butterflies, perfect for children and adults and ideal for outdoor use, laminated, shower-proof and robust. Get your copy today.
Butterflies of Britain (Laminated ID Chart).
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Population trends 1
UK Population trend 1995-2004 down by -51%
UK Population trend 1976-2004 down by -66%

1Fox, R., Asher. J., Brereton. T., Roy, D & Warren, M. (2006) The State of Butterflies in Britain & Ireland, Pices, Oxford.
UK BAP status 2
UK BAP status priority species (link)

2For information about the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, visit the JNCC web site jncc.defra.gov.uk.

National Biodiversity Network Gateway
National Biodiversity Network Gateway Distribution Map



Areas in and indicate a contraction in distribution of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary except in Ireland where data is only available up until 1999.

* Records shown in outside the natural distribution may be the result of illegal or accidental releases by breeders or, depending upon the species, migrant individuals from mainland Europe.

Key to map*
= 2000 to 2010 inclusive (current distribution)
= records from 1950 to 1999 inclusive
= records from 1900 to 1949 inclusive
Records prior to 1st January 1900 are not shown.

The NBN Gateway records are shown on the map right. (See terms and conditions).

More data is available on the Pearl-bordered Fritillary on the NBN Gateway web site.
Powered by NBN Gateway.
References
For full details of books and reports mentioned on this web site, view the references page.

Find out more online*
Pearl-bordered Fritillary can be found on Peter Eeles excellent UK Butterflies web site.
Pearl-bordered Fritillary can be found on Matt Rowlings excellent European Butterflies web site.

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Photographs of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary
Image ID BB2007 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2007 ©
Image ID BB2006 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2006 ©
Image ID BB2005 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2005 ©
Image ID BB2004 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2004 ©
Image ID BB2003 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2003 ©
Image ID BB2002 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2002 ©
Image ID BB2001 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2001 ©
Image ID BB2000 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB2000 ©
Image ID BB1999 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB1999 ©
Image ID BB1998 - Pearl-bordered Fritillary - © Steven Cheshire
Pearl-bordered Fritillary (imago)
BB1998 ©
There are 36 photographs of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in our stock photo library.
View more photographs of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary as a thumbnail gallery or as a slideshow.
Aberrations and forms
There are 17 named aberrant forms of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary currently listed. Find out more about aberrants here.

ab. albinea - Lambillion 1898
ab. albomaculata - Goodson 1959
ab. atermaginalis - Frohawk 1938
ab. conducta - Nordström 1933
ab. edna - Lobb 1953
ab. luteus - Frohawk 1938
ab. melanoradiata - Goodson 1966
ab. nigricans - Oberthür 1923
ab. nigricosta - Goodson 1966
ab. nigromarginata - Goodson 1966
ab. pallida - Spuler 1901
ab. parvipunctata - Oberthür 1923
ab. pittionii - Nitsche 1926
ab. plumbea - Cockayne 1924
ab. rinaldus - Herbst 1800
ab. stramineus - Frohawk 1938
ab. tatrica - Aigner 1906